OEC Subject Aids

Subject aids serve as an introduction to a number of issues in science and engineering ethics. The list of aids is drawn from the terms in the three main topical areas on the OEC. The subject aid appears first when users call up all the resources classified by that term in the topics.

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  • Added01/26/2018

    Whistleblowing is the act of raising a concern (such as one about safety, financial fraud, or mistreatment of research animals) about the organization in which a problem or suspected problem is occurring. Traditionally those called whistleblowers have or have had affiliations with the ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/26/2018

    Safety involves freedom from danger. The term safety is often used loosely and without particular specification. A home may be thought of as safe for some residents and not others. Similarly, a workplace or other organizational setting may be safe for some employees, etc., and not others. A ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2016
  • Added01/26/2018

    Innovations — new ideas, methods, or products — in science and technology have resulted in increased knowledge and tangible improvements in human and environmental health; however, new technologies have also produced an array of unintended and undesirable consequences. Emerging ...

    Author(s) Jessica Cavin Barnes
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/25/2018

    Public well-being can be thought to consist of outcomes that promote well-being or benefits for society at large. To better delineate this notion, a useful starting point is the video on the OEC titled “ New Tools for Science Policy – Public Value Mapping .” This video ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/25/2018

    Certain research areas are controversial insofar as they raise special ethical concern; one such area is that of research for military or defense purposes – with an offensive or defensive military or security goal. In addition, ethical issues arise for research that may be practiced or ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/25/2018

    Diversity is the quality or state of having different forms, elements, or characteristics. Diversity may be found in a population or a state of affairs. Two types of diversity issues arise in discussions of science and technology policy. One has to do with design in research and ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/24/2018

    Social justice has been studied by philosophers, social scientists, and historians. The idea has also formed the basis for and underlies many social and political movements. As social movements for human rights and environmental justice indicate, the term can be a rallying cry for ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2016
  • Added01/24/2018

    Many options have been explored for alleviating global warming, including replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources and/or nuclear power, and removal of carbon dioxide and/or direct intervention in climate (geoengineering). When limited to the context of climate change, ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/24/2018

    The Greek philosopher Aristotle used the word “energy” to indicate the ability to act to reach a goal, whereas the modern view of energy indicates the capability to undertake work. In science and engineering disciplines today, energy has precise technical meanings. Today also, ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2016
  • Added01/24/2018

    Climate in a geographical area is its typical or average weather. Climate change therefore would be a change in that typical or average weather that endures over time. Usually in conversation today, climate change refers to the global phenomenon of a long term warming trend in temperatures; ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/23/2018

    A straightforward definition of “big data” appears towards the top of a Google search (June 29, 2016) as “extremely large data sets that may be analyzed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behavior and ...

    Author(s) Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2016
  • Added01/23/2018

    ‘Governance’ refers to the process of governing and it encompasses the term ‘government.’ Government denotes the state and its institutions. In contrast, ‘governance’ refers to those entities as well as the formulation of rules and organization of social ...

    Author(s) Zahra Meghani Rachelle Hollander
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/23/2018

    Reproducibility is the ability of an entire analysis of an experiment or study to be duplicated, either by the same researcher or by someone else working independently. Reproducibility is a core principle of scientific progress. Scientific claims should not gain credence because of the status or ...

    Author(s) Kelly Laas
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/22/2018

    It is common to distinguish four species of privacy: physical, informational, decisional, and psychological/mental privacy. In addition, philosopher and legal theorist Anita Allen (2003) distinguishes dispositional privacy. Physical privacy is a restriction on the ability of others to experience a ...

    Author(s) Kelly Laas
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/22/2018

    Organizational culture refers to the system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs that govern how people behave in a specific organization. Organizational ethical climate is the shared perceptions and attitudes of how individuals perceive the quality of the environments in which they ...

    Author(s) Kelly Laas
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
  • Added01/19/2018

    Mentoring relationships are personal and reciprocal relationships where a more seasoned professional acts as a guide, role model, teacher, and sponsor of a less experienced student or junior professional. A mentor provides the mentee with knowledge, advice, council, challenge and support in the ...

    Author(s) Kelly Laas
    Authoring Institution Online Ethics Center
    Year 2017
Cite this page: "OEC Subject Aids" Online Ethics Center for Engineering 3/29/2016 OEC Accessed: Tuesday, June 18, 2019 <www.onlineethics.org/Resources/Subject-Aids.aspx>