This unit was originally created by Mark A. Zaremba for the OEC. Revisions were made in 2004 by OEC staff
Simply put, it is an incomplete canal, or just a trench, built in western New York state in the 1890s. From the 1930s through the 1950s, it was used as a chemical waste dump. The surrounding land was then sold and used for residential purposes, and soon people began complaining about strange...
Simply put, it is an incomplete canal, or just a trench, built in western New York state in the 1890s. From the 1930s through the 1950s, it was used as a chemical waste dump. The surrounding land was then sold and used for residential purposes, and soon people began complaining about strange odors and possible health problems. Since the late 1970s, many studies have been done to ascertain whether any health problems can be traced to the waste dumped into Love Canal.
It is significant because it was the first case concerning hazardous waste disposal and its possible health effects that received major national attention. The information in this site is drawn primarily from two publications: Monitoring the Community for Exposure and Disease, a report to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (Nicholas Ashford, Principal Investigator, and Linda Schierow, Project Manager, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, 1991) and Love Canal: Science, Politics, and People (Adeline Gordon Levine, Toronto: D.C. Heath, 1982). Other information is drawn from materials listed in the other Love Canal Resources sections.
The Love Canal neighborhood is located in the city of Niagara Falls, in western New York state. It officially covers 36 square blocks in the southeastern corner of the city. Two bodies of water define the northern and southern boundaries of the neighborhood -- Bergholtz Creek to the north and the Niagara River one-quarter mile to the south. Open fields are to the east, and the western border is 92nd Street. The canal itself is enclosed by 97th, 99th, Colvin and Frontier Streets.
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In the 1890s, William T. Love began digging a canal near Niagara Falls, New York. The canal was never finished -- leaving a seemingly useless hole in the ground. But when industries started flocking to the area in later years, this trench, Love Canal, was bound to find a use.
In the 1930s, four decades after William T. Love's project had faded away, various companies began dumping chemical waste into the canal. Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation purchased the land in 1942; through 1953, the company dumped an enormous quantity of hazardous waste (estimated at 352 million pounds) into the canal. Instead of finding a proper place for the wastes, Hooker merely filled in and covered the canal. The Niagara Falls Board of Education acquired the land and constructed a playground and elementary school there, selling the rest of the land to real estate developers. Throughout the next two decades, chemicals that had been dumped into Love Canal began to leach through the soil and leak into people's basements, contaminate underground pipes, and pollute the air. It was not until the 1970s, however, that the true potential for damage from such wastes was recognized.
The first tests of the Love Canal area were begun by the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC) in 1976. In 1977, results were disclosed: according to NYDEC and the Calspan Corporation (a private firm), groundwater was contaminated, as was air and soil. Local citizens made this information available to their U.S. representatives, who called on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for further investigation. In March 1978, New York's health commissioner saw the USEPA report, and decided that human testing would be necessary. Blood samples were drawn from Love Canal residents. A panel of physicians was assembled to evaluate the results of the tests, and they recommended drastic measures. As a result, the governor of New York declared a state health emergency. The elementary school on the Love Canal site was closed immediately and some families were relocated.
More studies were done in subsequent years. The only thing the tests had in common was that no matter how the results were interpreted, they always managed to be controversial. There continued to be a great deal of media coverage of Love Canal, and this, along with attention from Congress and the courts, only added to the controversy. To ensure that their concerns were properly represented, citizens began to organize the Love Canal Homeowners Association, the LaSalle Renters Association (representing a particular housing project), the 93rd Street Group (representing residents outside of the official study area) and the Concerned Area Residents Group.
Many recent developments in the Love Canal case have taken place in courtrooms. In June 1989, Hooker's parent company, Occidental Chemical Corporation, agreed to perform most of the necessary cleanup work (U.S. v. Occidental Chemical Corp., WDNY, No. 79-990C, 6/1/89). Property damage and personal injury lawsuits have also been filed against the Occidental Chemical Corporation and its parent company, the Occidental Petroleum Corporation, and against the board of education, the city, and the county. In 1983, the New York Supreme Court announced a settlement in favor of past and present residents of Love Canal, (some 1,337 of them) for $20 million. And in 1995, Occidental agreed to pay $129 million to USEPA to cover cleanup costs. It has now settled all of the claims brought by Love Canal residents, as well.
For years, city and state government tried to repopulate the Love Canal neighborhood, based upon USEPA data. In 1988 NYSDH produced a study suggesting that a majority of the neighborhood was satisfactory for people to live in. The study was lambasted by many, including scientists, ex-Love Canal residents, and environmental groups. But enough people apparently believed that the area was safe and a public agency, the Love Canal Revitalization Agency, took ownership of the homes and renovated them. Of the 239 homes in the area, now named Black Creek Village, almost all have been sold. The state health department has initiated a new study of the area's safety, the largest Love Canal study ever done. (For more current developments at Love Canal, see Recent Love Canal News.)
Love Canal was the first hazardous waste disposal case to draw national attention, and thus remains a landmark case. Congress drew on information from the Love Canal case when it debated and passed CERCLA, the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation and Liability Act (known informally as the "Superfund" Act). The Love Canal court battles actually provided one of the first tests of the new law.
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Joshua Hertz, Alfred University student, 1996
A note from the Online Ethics Center: This report was
a second-place winner in a 1996 contest for
student-authored websites on topics in science and
engineering ethics. The opinions and conclusions are the
author's own, not those of the staff of the Online Ethics
Center. In some cases we have corrected factual errors. These
corrections are contained in square brackets and marked with
"[oec]". Photos that originally accompanied the essay have been removed, because we could not identify their source or contents.
The purpose of this page is to inform the reader of the
horrendous mistakes that were made to the "Love Canal" area
of New York and to its residents. The errors made will
continue to effect the local environment for thousands of
years, and has made genetic mutations that will survive for
Near the end of the nineteenth century, after America was
once again a unified country, the entrepreneurial pioneers
looked towards shipping. Many canals, such as the C&O and
Erie Canals, unified American waterways to provide an
efficient shipping system. In 1894, venture capitalist
William Love envisioned a "power canal" (the purpose of which
was to supply cheap hydroelectric power) in the Niagara Falls
region of New York State. Construction began on Love's
vision, but soon a depression hit the nation, and Love was
left with no investors and little more than an empty ditch.
"Love Canal"--as the hole became affectionately known by the
local townspeople-- became a swimming hole in the summer, and
an ice skating rink in the winter. This attitude towards the
canal was to end by the mid-1900's.
In 1942, Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation
negotiated a deal with the current title-holders of the land,
the power company, whereby the Corporation was allowed to
dump any wastes into the canal. Hooker finally bought out the
land, and its surroundings, in 1947. To the company's
defense, [the chemicals were dug into impermeable clay soil
[oec], but many tons of hazardous, indeed deadly, chemicals
were then dumped into the Love Canal. Local homeowners were
not apt to complain, for environmental concerns were not at
such a forefront of social consciousnes as they are today,
and also the Hooker Corporation was a large employerin the
area. What was the Love Canal became a huge field upon which
children could play soccer.
And so, the disaster began...
In 1950, all of the dumping into the Love Canal was
completed. The Hooker Company went to great lengths to seal
the chemicals forever. The Canal was [dug into impermeable
clay soil [oec] and a [oec] clay soil cap [oec] was placed on
top to prevent any rain water from leaking in. The
precautions made were, in fact, more than sufficient.
About the same time, the district school board was looking
for a place to send all of the baby boomer children entering
school. Eyeing the large field, the board approached the
Hooker Plastics and Chemical Corporation. Hooker was eager to
get rid of the virtual wasteland, but did not want to give
the risk to the public. The company went so far as to make
test digs into the ground to prove the existence of the
chemicals to the government executives. Despite the warnings,
however, the school board prepared eminent domain cases.
Reluctantly, the company gave the land over nearly for free,
and in return was loosened of all liability.
What followed was series of follies by the local
government. First, dirt was removed from above the dump to
provide for the building of a school.
Some of the cement cap was also removed, allowing rain to
seep in. The school became the first in the area without a
basement, for obvious reasons. Later, the city constructed a
sewer line that penetrated a few of the cement walls.
Surrounding the lines was permeable gravel. In 1960,
a storm drain was put in place that pierced the wall of the
covering. The punctures allowed any and all chemicals to be
able to swept away with the rain water into surrounding
lakes, rivers, and wells. As the area's population density
increased, pressure was put upon the city government to sell
the land for development, which is exactly what happened in
the later 1960's.
Finally, the attention of many people becamethe focus the
ever growing problem of Love Canal.
Besides breathing toxic fumes, people were exposed to
actual pools of chemicals bubbling up to the surface. Slowly,
as the mass media began to draw attention toward the
ever-growing problem, the U. S. government got involved.
Slowly, homes were evacuated. By 1980, everyone was allowed
In all, 20,000 tons of 248 assorted chemicals were buried
at Love Canal, including: the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane
(known as Lindane), chlorobenzenes, chlorinated hydrocarbons,
benzene, chloroform, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride,
benzene hexachloride, phosphorous rocks, polychlorinated
biphenyls, and 1, 3, 7, 8- tetrachlorodibenzo- para-dioxin
(or just dioxin). There was an estimated 130 pounds of dioxin
contained at the Love Canal dumpsite; it has been estimated
that three ounces can kill in excess of one million people.
(3) With that degree of chemical contamination, it
is easy to blame the Hooker Chemical Company, as the media
and public did, but were they at fault?
The Hooker Company took great precautions, especially when
compared to the standards of the day, in [digging the
chemicals into impermeable clay soil [oec]]. They did "sell"
the land to the government, when they had to expect the land
would be developed, but they were nearly forced to under the
threat of [eminent [oec]] domain cases. Even after the land
was sold, Hooker continued to try to stop development of the
land. It was the local government who went against all
repeated warnings and tried to profit off of the contaminated
The government knew of the chemicals, but pierced the clay
container more than a few times for the sake of fill dirt,
and to put sewer lines in place. Then, by selling the land
for development , they virtually asked for attention to be
brought to the site. It was the government's shoddy handling
of the waste land, and their concern for money over their
constituents, that caused the ultimate Love Canal
The cost of the Love Canal waste dump is not yet well
documented. Many of the long-term health effects due to
exposure to the chemicals are not yet known. Some short-term
effects have started to show up, though. In one case, a
woman's genes mutated so that all of her children, and her
children's children, and so on, will be permanently blind. In
another case, two brothers came into direct skin contact with
some chemicals that had bubbled to the ground surface. One
has chronic ear problems, the other respiratory problems.
Other known problems are miscarriages, liver abnormalities,
and rectal bleeding. 3 In at least one case, a
health accident occurred in [which a child [oec]] collected
some [pieces of [oec]] phosphorus lying on the ground, and
put them in his pocket. There, they ignited and burnt much of
Monetarily speaking, the cost of the evacuation of the
Love Canal, and the cleanup of that site specifically, is
insignificant [when compared with (oec)] the overall cost of
the disaster. The real cost [lies in the cost(oec)] of the
national toxic waste cleanup fund, or Superfund. This fund,
established in 1980 and greatly increased in 1986, was the
United States government's response to the cause celebre that
the Love Canal became. Love Canal was, by comparison, a
smaller site than many others, but it received the most media
Superfund was supposed to clean up all of America's toxic
waste dumps. The fund was established through a tax on oil
producers and chemical manufacturers. The Superfund has now
spent over ten billion dollars, but has accomplished little.
"'All sides agree that the Superfund program for cleaning up
hazardous wastes sites is not working as intended and that
progress on permanent cleanups has been painfully slow,'
former Environmental Protection Agency administrator Russell
Train wrote earlier this year." 4 The most famous
toxic waste site in America s history has cost us money,
life, and land.
They say that out of all bad things, must come some good.
If any good came out of the Love Canal, it is that America
has wakened up to its growing toxic waste problem. Superfund
is currently ineffective, but with the growing
environmentalism of the 1990's, perhaps a real solution might
come. The Love Canal Toxic Waste Dump Site has opened our
eyes to America's need to find a real, permanent
The Love Canal area today is starting to be re-inhabited.
The chemicals there will not decompose for approximately
20,000 years, the genetic mutations will survive
indefinitely, the legend and stigma will live on in history
books. Who knows how long the lesson will be remembered?